Stolpersteine, or stumbling stones have been defined by Wikipedia as follows:
“The works of the German sculptor Günter Demnig; 10×10 cm copper plaques in cobblestone, placed as a tribute to the victims of National Socialism in front of their former dwelling homes. These stones will make history visible and tangible in the everyday life of the residents.”
The inscription on each plaque begins with the words “He lived here”, followed by the name, date of birth and a brief description of the person’s fate.
Günter Demnig is responsible for the complete arrangement of the stone installations throughout Europe, including Hungary.
In Győr, the Spitzer family laid the first stones in 2016. MAZSIKE supported the project, covered part of the costs with state funding and organised Mr Demnig’s trip. In 2019, the Spiegel, Winkler, Klein (Quittner) and Adler families also laid stones in the city. Memorial stones for the Neuwirth family are still to be placed.
As of September 2019, a total of 446 stumbling blocks have been laid in Hungary, 150 of which were in Budapest.
On the occasion of the placement of the memorial stones in the honour of her family, Olga Spitzer said, “It was not an easy decision because I was afraid, but my defiance was greater than my fear of anti-Semitism.”
Some practical information:
The following link provides information on the stumbling stones deposited in Hungary: https://mazsike.hu/projektek/botlatokovek/ The (not fully up-to-date) map also shows the stones of Győr.
If you want to have a memorial stone placed today, please contact MAZSIKE. You must be able to provide all the information needed for a standardised inscription, including the last freely chosen place of residence of the victim. These should be sent to email@example.com with any questions for clarification.
Sources: Olga Spitzer; Wikipedia https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botlat%C3%B3k%C5%91; daily newspaper Kisalföld, 15.08.2016; MAZSIKE 28. 02. 2022; featured image: © Krausz P.